Bacillus polymyxa is a Gram-positive bacterium capable of fixing nitrogen. It is found in soil, plant roots, and marine sediments. Bacillus polymyxa and its role as a biofertilizer and biocontrol agent in agriculture.
Bacillus polymyxa is used as a soil inoculant in agriculture and horticulture. Bacillus polymyxa growing on plant roots have been shown to produce exopolysaccharides which protect the plants from pathogens. The interactions between this bacterial species and plant roots also cause the root hairs to undergo physical changes. Some strains of Bacillus polymyxa produce polymyxin antibiotic compounds. Surfactant complexes isolated from Bacillus polymyxa have been shown to be effective in disrupting biofilms of Bacillus subtilis, Micrococcus luteus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, and Streptococcus Bovis.
Bacillus polymyxa is a plant-growth-promoting rhizobacterium that could be exploited as an environmentally friendlier alternative to chemical fertilizers and pesticides. Various strains have been isolated that can benefit agriculture through antimicrobial activity, nitrogen fixation, phosphate solubilization, plant hormone production, or lignocellulose degradation. However, no single strain has yet been identified in which all of these advantageous traits have been confirmed.